Saturday, July 18, 2020

Tired of People Lying to You Here is Why They Are Doing It (and How to Stop them)

Tired of People Lying to You Here is Why They Are Doing It (and How to Stop them) We use lying for many reasons. For one, we use it to protect ourselves. Against what, is the question. Sometimes we protect ourselves against the feeling of shame, the experience of abuse or cruelty. We lie to protect ourselves, our close ones and our possessions. We lie to get our way and for attention. We are trying to maintain our image, hide our mistakes and failures. We lie for money, or resources. We lie on our taxes and for insurance, we cheat on our exams and embellish our skills at our jobs. We lie to our significant others during our arguments. We lie to save money or conserve our energy. Why do we lie so much? What does all that protection get us? If we do It so often, does that mean it works? WHY LIE IN GENERAL?It is a survival instinct. People are afraid that if they don’t lie they risk society turning against them rejection and isolation, losing what they have, or not gaining new things. They do not fear the consequences if they are found out, because they often woul dn’t suffer any consequences for pretending or being dishonest. That means they feel safe.  It is important to understand that liars are often mistaken for malicious when they are just insecure. And you need to respond with compassion, rather than vindictiveness. Compassion is the key to improving relationships, stained by dishonesty. Research has been conducted to study liars. Who lies, how often people lie, and why they lie. People were asked to keep a diary of all their conversations. Turns out, people lie sometimes out of habit. Regardless if there is anything to be gained or not. What is more interesting, some people are more often lied to than others. There could be something about you (in your face, in your responses, or in your image) that tempts people to lie to you more than they would to other people. It could be a bad thing or a good thing. You could be naïve. Or you could just be very honest and trusting. But it is crucial to understand that some people need to be mo re cautious of being lied to than others. WHY PEOPLE LIE TO YOU?1. You are high maintenance. Your high expectations make people lie to you in order to meet the high bar you are setting. You think highly of someone. And they want to stay close to you. But you give off the impression you are not just friends with anyone. You only expect them to show you their best side. You are so valuable, they cannot afford to disappoint you. When they do see faults in themselves, they dread telling you. So they lie. To maintain their image and your friendship. They come from a good place. 2. Your integrity.You have a high moral standard. Always doing the right thing, always taking the high way (regardless if there is less traffic on it or not.)You are doing a good thing. And you are being a good person. You show that with your actions, and your behavior. You don’t need to shout it from the rooftops. Or maybe you do. Or your parents do it for you. Or your friends do. The issue here is the psycholo gy of disappointment. When someone interacts with another â€" a person with high moral standards, they have no desire, in fact they dread having to admit to their own failures.Imagine a situation between siblings. The cliché of the favorite child. The ‘bad’ one will be unwilling to admit any sort of wrongdoing in order not to disappoint the parents, the relatives, or anyone else. They fear contributing to their unfavorable reputation. 3. You attract it.It is the principle of the key and the padlock. One type of people will always attract another. Liars find the perfect victims. The trusting ones. It is your attractiveness. It is not being physically attractive but encompassing a set of character traits that clicks with the personality of a liar. The liars admire you, and that drives them to try and impress you â€" to make you admire them. And they will lie to achieve that. 4. Your societal status.Do you have a high status? Are you in a position of power? Are you an employer. Or maybe you have some skills or position which affects other people’s life or their work?. Are you a teacher, where you get to grade your students? You have influence on their status at school, at home (as the favorite child), are you standing between someone and their dream college (your recommendation would be crucial)?Are you someone accomplished, whose opinion can make or break someone in society? If you have any sort of influence or control over others, expect to be lied to more often. You have something they desire, or worse, something they believe they are entitled to, then they will lie to you. Or they could just be trying to suck up. They will give you compliments. They will try to get you to admire them more than they deserve. They will try to become your friend. To enter your social circle. Maybe you can introduce them to someone else, who can change their lives for the better? Maybe you will see them as more favorable for promotion?5. Your scary personality.Most of the qualities that make other people to lie to are harmless. They work for your life for the best, and being lied to is just a side effect. That is not always the case. Sometimes it is completely your fault. If you are going through a tough moment and it feels like you are being lied to too often and that does not even begin to scratch the surface of all of your unfortunes, take a hard look at yourself. It could be something you are doing wrong. Fix that and the lying will go away, along with other things. Do you remember at school there was that one scary teacher you could not force yourself to talk to? Or that scary co-worker or… your boss? Are you that person to someone? Scary people come in many different forms. Bullies is one of them. The ‘boss’ (as opposed to the leader) is another one. But some people can’t help it. They intimidate people by their mere presence.And that makes it that much more mandatory for the scared to lie. ‘My dog ate my homework.’ ’Who, me? I wa sn’t late. I mean I was late, but there was such bad traffic.’ ’No, mom, I promise, I didn’t drop off college, no matter what dad said, I would never do that.’6. You are vulnerable.Depression, anxiety, being easily hurt? Maybe that’s not you. Maybe you are just going through a particularly difficult time. If your image is you are too fragile, and people know that, there will be situations where they will be quite reluctant to say to you something that you will not want to hear. They will be scared of your reaction and of the consequences your soul will face because of their big mouth. They think you cant handle it. The truth will break you. So they will tell you a lie. 7. Too much is at stake.Imagine you are the CEO, for example, of a big company. Your workers will act according to your behavior. They know that you don’t want to hear any facts that will constitute bad news about your company. Or it could be your ego. Say you are a beautiful model or an actress. Your co nfidence is a huge part of your career. Even if something is wrong, people around you will be willing to keep you in the dark in order to keep your energy high.8. Heritage.When a beloved one is sick in the family, parents protect their kids by embellishing the story. When the dog has to be put to sleep, they are ‘sending it away to a beautiful farm.’ When parents declare they dont talk about some things in the family, kids inherit this behavior when they grow up. Or even before that. They ‘act like the adults’. While it is totally understandable that they want to protect the kids from the pain, it is starting a vicious spiral. It reinforces the instinct to lie. And it manifests in other situations as well. HOW TO SPOT A LIAR?Now that you know a little bit more about why liars lie, you probably want to also know when they lie. A cross analysis of hundreds of research papers on lying tells us that people are not as good at spotting a liar as they often claim to be. They are on ly accurate at a little higher than 50% of the time. That means that whether you are using your priceless skills, or tossing a coin to tell, the result will be roughly the same. We do not happily admit to being lied to and not catching the liar, because it makes us feel foolish and incompetent. Here are several tips that will help you improve your chances:The liar will often make a pause or delay before answering when an immediate response would be expected. They experience a disconnect between behavior and words (e.g., shaking their head ‘NO’ while saying ‘Yes’)Shielding. Putting an object or their hand between themselves and the interlocutor. Clearing their throat before they speak. Face touching. During the moment of high anxiety, caused by the lie, the body will increase the amount of blood sent to the face. The instinct of touching the affected area acts out. Grooming or tidying. Fixing their tie, straightening their jacket, or reordering the pieces of paper standing in front of them. Psychology Today lets us in on the liars’ favorite things to say. The next section of the article is a brief overview of those clues. [Verbal cues do give off some information about the liar, please note relying on those completely would be a mistake. The best method to predict deception is to compare how they react against a known truth.]The following phrases, however, do indicate a heightened chance of deceit. Showing uncertainty“That’s about it.”The word “about” in this case is a qualifier, indicating the speaker is unwilling to share the entire story. Normally, they distance themselves from the lie for fear of social or legal consequences.Challenging you“You can’t prove that.”The word “prove” suggests there is an accusation imposed on the speaker, and they are in an unfavorable position. The honest will not normally use the word ‘proof’. They will not think in that direction. The evidence will not exist if a crime was not committed. Aski ng for logic“Why would I do that?”Honest people will deny the wrong doing immediately. They will typically just say, “No, I didn’t do that.” Deceptive people will feel they were caught off guard, and they need the extra time. Act offended“Are you accusing me?”First off, we have them answering a question with a question, which once again is a tactic, designed, to give them more time. Then, they would turn on the defensive. It is an overreaction, a counterattack, undertaken in order to mask the real emotions â€" of shame, of regret, of fear. All very strong emotions that would need just as strong of an accusation on the other end, to justify the tension one could feel in the accused. Getting amnesia“I don’t remember doing that.”Sudden lack of recent memory to cover the truth. First off, lacking a memory is the absence of something. You cannot have an absence of something that never existed. By saying you do not remember something, you are saying you used to remembe r it, but no longer do. If you never knew about the event, you would probably react another way. The second clue hides in the word ‘that’. ‘That’ normally means a specific set of actions. When you say, “I didn’t do that,” you normally know exactly the event you are accused of causing.  The perfect follow-up question should be, “What do you remember doing?” If someone is not lying, they remember what they were doing and will have no issues sharing that. Liars, on the other hand, will get confused. They will stutter, they will show the signs of coming up with a story. Those are just examples. A simple way to follow the same logic is to listen if the response fits the conversation. More often than not, you will hear something that sounds off if you are being lied to. Watch this fascinating video of Pamela Meyer telling you how to spot a liar.HOW TO REACT TO A LIE?If you are certain you are being lied to, you can react in one out of four ways:You can do nothing. Maybe you are not winning much from calling someone out. Maybe you are even doing the world a service if you play along to white lies. Use humor acknowledge the lie but give the liar a chance to admit without creating an awkward situation. Interrogate the defendant.  (asking lots of questions to get details can force the liar into admitting the dishonesty without you calling them out).Call them out. Best do it without damaging the self-esteem of the liar. Do it privately. And with respect. And understanding. However you react, make sure you allow the defendant to admit to their wrongdoing without harsh accusations. As we already discovered, lying is not much more than an instinct in a lot of cases. React with compassion. Ask questions. Learn about the root of the behavior. What brought them to lie? Is it possible to continue the relationship forward without damage from the lie? Empathy goes a long way. You may benefit from actively convincing the liar you have walked in their shoes. Letâ €™s say they lie to you about money. And they try to deceive you out of petty cash. Try explaining to them you are so broke you can’t even afford to pay for your own lunch. See how they will react. More often than not, a liar will back off from their bold claims, and let you have your money. They might even admit to their lying. What should you do if it is a close one that you are catching in a lie? First rule, calm down and try to be objective. You have probably told them a couple white lies here and there. And maybe a couple heavier ones. Don’t be too judgmental. You have benefitted way too many times from them not being able to catch you in a lie. Like we said earlier, people are only correct 53% of the time, and that is, if it even crosses their mind they could be lied to. What is more scary, even CIA specialists, whose work it is to spot lies, are not as good at doing it. They are only 60% likely to be correct about someone lying, if they solely base their judgement on verb al cues. But when you do catch a close friend it could feel very bad. You immediately forget about all of the times you lied to them. And you feel betrayed and ashamed. It is almost like you did something wrong. It feels like an insult. Our advice is to not avoid the conversation about it. Lies between friends and family must be cleared immediately, otherwise they could be very toxic to even the most unmovable relationships. Try to be objective. And to let them off the hook easily. They only lied to you this one time. Avoid projecting on them all those times you were suspicious, unless you have admission of guilt. Do not perpetuate the bad behavior. Be careful not to use insults, too many accusations… or new lies. Stay honest, and speak your truth. Only time will tell if your relationship is doomed. What if it is serious? Even criminal? Before you decide how you will react to the lie, consider the recent history of similar situations. If you’re going to call someone out, you nee d to know the consequences what you’re getting yourself and the liar into. The more serious the lie, the more significant the consequences. And some of those may reflect on you. If it is criminal, make sure you are taking the right course of action legally â€" reporting, confessing, testifying. Sometimes, not reacting will also be detrimental to you. It could cost you your family, your job, or you could even serve time, depending on the context of the lie. Think about:Your motives. Are you emotionally hurt and want revenge, or do you believe reporting is the right thing to do? Legally? Or just because it will change everybody’s lives for the better?Your protections. Prior to reporting the lie, make sure you take all necessary measures to protect yourself. What you don’t want to do is use other lies in order to achieve that. Accumulate witnesses. Be careful â€" only involve people who are already aware of the situation. Do not involve others, who did not volunteer to have thei r lives changed. Get your story straight. Do you know the entire scope of the lie? Do you know the entire scope of the truth? Who, what, when, where, etc.When you consider the consequences, always choose the least out of all evil. Even if you have a way of not facing any consequences at all, it is not worth it to ruin someone else’s life to get ahead. You might be innocent, but so are they. CONCLUSIONWe all lie a lot. Mostly, to protect ourselves from… God knows what. And we rarely get caught. Just above 50% of the time. So we are used to ignoring the consequences. We take disproportionate risks. We lie about serious matters in order to get ahead, even if the consequences could cause us our family, our money, or even our freedom. We know how to avoid getting caught. But do we? Becoming braver and braver in our lying, taking larger and larger risks with diminishing returns? Is it worth it? Next time before you are about to tell a lie, think again.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Cosmos Episode 10 Viewing Worksheet

Teachers sometimes need a movie or other type of scientific show for their classes. Whether it is used as a supplement for a topic the class is learning about or as a reward, or even as a lesson plan for a substitute teacher to follow, videos can be very helpful. In fact, some videos or shows that have a worksheet that accompanies them can be used as a type of assessment to let the teacher know how the students are grasping the information (and also whether or not they were paying attention during the video). The series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson and produced by Seth MacFarlane is an incredible journey into some very important science topics. Episode 10, entitled The Electric Boy, is a great account of the discovery of electricity and magnetism and how they work together. Any physics or physical science class learning about these topics would make a great audience for this particular episode. Feel free to copy-and-paste the questions below into a worksheet for the students to use as a viewing guide, after viewing quiz, or notetaking guide as they watch episode 10 of Cosmos. Cosmos Episode 10 Worksheet  Name:______________    Directions: Answer the questions as you watch episode 10 of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey entitled â€Å"The Electric Boy.†    1.  What is the name of the man Neil deGrasse Tyson says that had he not lived, the world we know may not exist today?    2.  Whose ancestral home does Neil deGrasse Tyson visit as he begins telling his story?    3.  Who does the little boy in the animation with the compass grow up to be?    4.  In what year was Michael Faraday born?    5.  What problem with his speech did a young Michael Faraday have?    6.  What does the teacher in the animation tell Michael Faraday’s brother to go and do?    7.  Where did Michael Faraday begin working when he was 13 years old?    8.  How did Michael Faraday gain the attention of Humphry Davy?    9. What happened to Humphry Davy when his experiment went terribly wrong?    10.  Where did Michael Faraday call his lifelong home?    11.  What did Humphry Davy notice about a wire will electricity running through it as he brought it near a compass?    12.  What does Neil deGrasse Tyson say was all Michael Faraday needed to â€Å"start a revolution†?    13.  What had Michael Faraday created when his wife’s brother flipped the switch for the electricity?    14. What was Humphry Davy’s next project for Michael Faraday and why did he give him that particular project?    15.  What brought about the end to the fruitless project Michael Faraday had been stuck on for years?    16.  Name three famous scientists who have participated in Faraday’s Annual Christmas Lectures.    17.  What had Michael Faraday created when he moved a magnet in and out of a wire?    18.  Michael Faraday believed in the â€Å"unity of nature.† What did he think could be related to electricity and magnetism?    19.  How did the hunk of glass Michael Faraday kept from his failed experiments with lenses help him prove the unity of natural forces?    20.  What problems was Michael Faraday having with his health?    21.  What did Michael Faraday discover when he sprinkled iron filings around current carrying wires?    22.  How do birds use the magnetic field of the Earth?    23. What creates the magnetic field that surrounds the Earth?    24.  Why did Michael Faraday’s contemporaries in science not believe his hypothesis about field forces?    25.  What mathematician helped prove Michael Faraday’s hypothesis about magnetic fields?    26.  Why does Neil deGrasse Tyson not flinch when the heavy red ball comes swinging back at his face?    27.  Instead of being static, Michael Faraday’s magnetic field lines turned out to be more like what?

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My Little Pony Art Of World War II - 1641 Words

This soldier’s statements carry merit as there were a number of World War 2 military planes adorned with images of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck ready for battle. Even in the Brony fandom there exists a large a cache of military inspired My Little Pony art located on websites like DeviantArt portraying ponies military garb. There has even been an Air Force squadron which adopted a redesigned My Little Pony logo as their unit patch. Other soldiers defend their position as a Brony by expressing the need for people to have a need to get away from the stresses of life. They feel as though there is a distinction between the service they provide and activities they engage in during duty hours: Even if the main interest in MLP was escapism, all media is essentially escapism, whether it s the rich rapper, the football star, or the action movie hero. Everyone to some extent lives vicariously through the entertainment they consume. At least this show let s [sic] the audience escape to a world where integrity, loyalty, and kindness is exalted, rather than violence, cynicism, and overt sexuality. Part of what this soldier sees in Schlicter’s argument is the interpretation of the off duty hours activities. Engaging in a media text like My Little Pony does not take away from the job they do. It is simply a portion of their life that only appears contradictory because it competes with the image of military soldier presented in mainstream media and this soldier feels the messageShow MoreRelated The Ford Mustang Essays2732 Words   |  11 Pagesmuscle and sports car, the Ford Mustang functions as a daily driver, weekend warrior, and a show winning work of mechanical art. Whether someone just needs a basic transportation to get from point A to point B, an eight second quarter-mile beast, or a show stopping work of power and beauty, Ford has produced a Mustang for every need. The Mustang got its name from the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane (Harris). The â€Å"five generations† evolved each year model until, in response to the 1971-1973Read MoreLiterary Criticism : The Free Encyclopedia 7351 Words   |  30 PagesApprenticeship by Johann Wolfgang Goethe in 1795–96,[8] or, sometimes, to Christoph Martin Wieland s Geschichte des Agathon of 1767.[9] Although the Bildungsroman arose in Germany, it has had extensive influence first in Europe and later throughout the world. Thomas Carlyle translated Goethe’s novel into English, and after its publication in 1824, many British authors wrote novels inspired by it.[10][11] In the 20th century, it spread to Germany, Britain,[12] France,[13][14] and several other countriesRead MoreResources Capabilities20336 Words   |  82 PagesCapabilities as Sources of Proï ¬ t l The Resources of the Firm Tangible Resources Intangible Resources Human Resources Analysis to Work: A Practical Guide Step 1 Identify the Key Resources and Capabilities 123 CSAC05 1/13/07 9:21 Page 124 124 PART II THE TOOLS OF STRATEGY ANALYSIS Step 2 Appraising Resources and Capabilities Step 3 Developing Strategy Implications l Developing Resources and Capabilities The Relationship between Resources and Capabilities Replicating Capabilities DevelopingRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesManagement Capital Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum International Management, Sixth Edition Hodgetts−Luthans−Doh Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition Jones−George Driving Shareholder Value Morin−Jarrell Leadership, Fifth Edition Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy The Art of M A: Merger/Acquisitions/Buyout Guide, Third Edition Reed−Lajoux and others . . . This book was printed on recycled paper. Management Copyright  ©2005 by The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reservedRead MoreInvestment and Economic Moats46074 Words   |  185 Pages T LITTLE BOO K HE THAT BUILDS WEALTH The Knockout Formula for Finding Great Investments PAT DORSEY FOREWORD BY JOE MANSUETO FOUNDER, CHAIRMAN, AND CEO OF MORNINGSTAR, INC. John Wiley Sons, Inc. ffirs.indd v 2/1/08 12:55:38 PM ffirs.indd iv 2/1/08 12:55:38 PM T K H LITTLE BOO E THAT BUILDS WEALTH ffirs.indd i 2/1/08 12:55:36 PM Little Book Big Profits Series In the Little Book Big Profits series, the brightest icons in the financial Read MoreCommon Knowledge : How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know56617 Words   |  227 Pages5-dc21 99048879 The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries and Archives Z39.481992. Page v FOR MY SONS WHOSE LIVES HAVE SO GREATLY ENRICHED MY OWN: STEPHEN DIXON JOHNSON RICHARD SCOTT JOHNSON Page vii Contents Acknowledgments 1 Introduction 2 Creating and Leveraging Common Knowledge 3 Serial Transfer 4 Near Transfer 5 Far Transfer 6 Strategic Transfer 7 Expert

New Respiratory Poses Potential Threat to Humans Free Essays

There are a lot of new bacteria and viruses being discovered almost every day. Some of them are new strains of previous species while some are entirely new species that have yet to be studied and usually cause no harm to humans. However, when the Adenovirus, the causative agent of the common cold, which is not a lethal illness to most people, mutates into a new form and mysteriously kills a lot of people, this is a cause for alarm. We will write a custom essay sample on New Respiratory Poses Potential Threat to Humans or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this connection, according to an article written by Associated Press and was published in Quad City Times, a mutated form of the Adenovirus has killed 10 people across the United States in last 18 months. In addition, the new form, which is called Ad14, has caused 140 illnesses in states such as Washington, Texas, Oregon, and New York. The virus was first reported last year in New York City, where it killed a 12-day old girl. Based on the article, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was puzzled by the new strain of the Adenovirus, which has only more than 50 variants. However, they emphasized that there was no need to be alarmed as the mutated virus does not pose a serious threat to humans. Moreover, the CDC is also working on a vaccine for the virus which they hope to release in 2009. What fascinated me most about the article is the fact that the Adenovirus, which usually causes mild forms of sicknesses, has mutated into a new and possibly, deadly form. Being a student taking up microbiology, I believe that this discovery of a mutated variant of a virus means that it is possible for other viruses, and even bacteria to mutate into a more lethal and more dangerous form. It is possible that the virus was exposed to certain factors which altered its nutritional requirements and as a result, made it evolve like in the case of certain bacteria such as E. coli. References. Quad City Times. (November 16, 2007).   New respiratory bug has killed 10 people. Retrieved December 2, 2007, from How to cite New Respiratory Poses Potential Threat to Humans, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Safest American Essays - Sedans, Coupes, Mid-size Cars, Muscle Cars

Safest American The Safest American made sedan by far is the 1994 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme LS. It is so because of the driving smoothness it offers on bumpy terrain, its size is bigger than a sports car, which enables it to sustain more damage. This car is also the safest because it is easy to reach the controls, so while you are driving you will not have to worry about leaning over to reach a button. The main good thing about this automobile is the price of it. You can now buy such a safe car for only sixteen thousand nine hundred ninety-five dollars. The price of this vehicle is more than descent when you look at all the features that it has. It has a drivers side airbag for extra protection. It also provides you with a three point on liter v-six engine and for-wheel anti-lock brakes, or ABS as some like to call it. If you think about it, this is a pretty impressive package. This price puts this car in range with some other notably safe cars such as the Ford Taurus and the Dodge Intrepid. It really does not matter though, since the LS is much safer. Weather can really get on your nerves, and that is why this vehicle has been added with rear-window and side-window defoggers to clear up any moisty mists that want to hang out on your glass. The car also has great traction, which was tested by the average human being, and not just Oldsmobile staff. These people say that the traction is nice and smooth, making this car perfect for rainy weather. Psychology Essays

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Rudolf Hess, Nazi Who Claimed to Be Bringing Peace Offer

Rudolf Hess, Nazi Who Claimed to Be Bringing Peace Offer Rudolf Hess was a top Nazi official and close associate of Adolph Hitler who shocked the world in the spring of 1941 by flying a small plane to Scotland, parachuting to the ground, and claiming when captured that he was delivering a peace proposal from Germany. His arrival was met with astonishment and skepticism, and he spent the rest of the war in captivity. Fast Facts: Rudolph Hess Birth: April 26, 1894, Alexandria, Egypt.Death: August 17, 1987, Spandau Prison, Berlin, Germany.Known for: High-ranking Nazi who flew to Scotland in 1941, claiming to bring a peace proposal. Close Hitler Associate There has always been considerable debate about Hesss mission. The British concluded he had no authority to negotiate peace, and questions about his motivations and even his sanity persisted. There was no doubt that Hess had been a longtime associate of Hitler. He had joined the Nazi movement when it was a tiny fringe group on the edge of German society and during Hitlers rise to power he became a trusted aide. At the time of his flight to Scotland, he was widely known to the outside world as a trusted member of Hitlers inner circle. Hess was ultimately convicted at the Nuremberg Trials, and would outlive the other Nazi war criminals who were convicted alongside him. Serving a life term in grim Spandau Prison in West Berlin, he ultimately became the prisons sole inmate for the last two decades of his life. Even his death in 1987 was controversial. By official account, he had committed suicide by hanging himself at the age of 93. Yet rumors of foul play circulated and still persist. After his death the German government had to deal with his grave in a family plot in Bavaria becoming a pilgrimage site for modern day Nazis. Early Career Hess was born as Walter Richard Rudolf Hess in Cairo, Egypt, on April 26, 1894. His father was a German merchant based in Egypt, and Hess was educated at a German school in Alexandria and later at schools in Germany and Switzerland. He embarked on a business career which was quickly interrupted by the outbreak of war in Europe when he was 20 years old. In World War I Hess served in a Bavarian infantry unit and eventually trained as a pilot. When the war ended with Germanys defeat Hess was embittered. Like many other disgruntled German veterans, his deep disillusionment led him to radical political movements. Hess became an early adherent of the Nazi Party, and forged a close association with the partys rising star, Hitler. Hess served as Hitlers secretary and bodyguard in the early 1920s. After the abortive coup in 1923 in Munich, which became famous as the Beer Hall Putsch, Hess was imprisoned with Hitler. During this period Hitler dictated to Hess part of what became his notorious book Mein Kampf. As the Nazis rose to power, Hess was given important posts by Hitler. In 1932 he was appointed head of the partys central commission. In the following years he continued being promoted, and his role in the top Nazi leadership was evident. A front-page headline in the New York Times in the summer of 1934 referred to his likely position as Hitlers closest subordinate and successor: Hitler Understudy Likely To Be Hess. In 1941, Hess was officially known as the third most powerful Nazi, after only Hitler and Herman Goering. In reality his power had probably faded, yet he was still in close contact with Hitler. As Hess hatched his plan to fly out of Germany, Operation Sea Lion, Hitlers plan to invade England the previous year had been postponed. Hitler was turning his attention eastward and making plans to invade Russia. Flight to Scotland On May 10, 1941, a farmer in Scotland discovered a German flier, wrapped in a parachute, on his land. The flier, whose Messerschmitt fighter plane had crashed nearby, first claimed to be an ordinary military pilot, giving his name as Alfred Horn. He was taken into custody by the British military. Hess, posing as Horn, told his captors he was a friend of the Duke of Hamilton, a British aristocrat and noted aviator who had attended the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. The Germans, or at least Hess, seemed to believe the Duke could help broker a peace deal. While detained in a hospital shortly after his capture, Hess got to meet the Duke of Hamilton and revealed his true identity. The Duke immediately contacted Prime Minister Winston Churchill and informed him that he had met Hess years earlier and the man who had landed in Scotland was indeed the high-ranking Nazi. British authorities expressed astonishment as the peculiar story of Hesss arrival in Scotland made headlines around the world. The earliest dispatches about Hesss flight from Germany to Scotland were full of speculation about his purpose and motives. One theory in the early press accounts was that Hess feared a purge was coming of top Nazi officials and Hitler might be planning to have him killed. Another theory was that Hess had decided to abandon the Nazi cause and help the British. The official story which was ultimately put out by the British was that Hess claimed to be bringing a peace proposal. The British leadership did not take Hess seriously. In any event, less than a year after the Battle of Britain the British were in no mood to discuss peace with Hitler. The Nazi leadership, for its part, distanced itself from Hess and put out the story that he had been suffering from delusions. For the rest of the war Hess was held by the British. His mental state was often questioned. At one point he seemed to attempt suicide by jumping over the railing of a staircase, breaking a leg in the process. He seemed to spend most of his time staring into space and began to habitually complain that he believed his food was being poisoned. Decades of Captivity Following the end of World War II, Hess was put on trial at Nuremberg along with other leading Nazis. Throughout the ten months of the 1946 war crimes trial, Hess often seemed disoriented as he sat in the courtroom along with other high-ranking Nazis. At times he read a book. Often he stared into space, seeming to have no interest in what was happening around him. Rudolf Hess, with arms extended, at the Nuremberg Trial. Getty Images   On October 1, 1946, Hess was sentenced to life in prison. Twelve of the other Nazis on trial with him were sentenced to be hanged, and others received sentences of 10 to 20 years. Hess was the only Nazi leader to be sentenced to a life term. He escaped the death penalty mainly because his mental state was questionable and he had spent the bloodiest years of the Nazi terror locked up in England. Hess served his sentence in Spandau Prison in West Berlin. Other Nazi prisoners died in prison or were released as their terms ended, and from October 1, 1966, onward, Hess was Spandaus only prisoner. His family periodically sought to have him released, but their appeals were always refused. The Soviet Union, which had been a party to the Nuremberg trials, insisted that he serve every day of his life sentence. In prison, Hess was still mostly a mystery. His peculiar behavior continued, and it wasnt until the 1960s that he agreed to have monthly visits from family members. He was in the news at times when he was taken to a British military hospital in Germany for treatment of various ailments. Controversy After Death Hess died in prison on August 17, 1987, at the age of 93. It was revealed that he had strangled himself with an electrical cord. His jailers said he had left a note indicating a desire to kill himself. Rumors circulated that Hess had been murdered, supposedly because he had become a figure of fascination for neo-Nazis in Europe. The Allied powers released his body to his family, despite fears that his grave would become a shrine for Nazi sympathizers. At his funeral in a Bavarian graveyard in late August 1987 scuffles broke out. The New York Times reported that about 200 Nazi sympathizers, some dressed in Third Reich uniforms, scuffled with police. Hess was buried in a family plot and the site did become a gathering place for Nazis. In the summer of 2011, fed up with visits by Nazis, the cemetery administration exhumed Hesss remains. His body was then cremated and his ashes scattered at sea in an unknown location. Theories about Hesss flight to Scotland continue to emerge. In the early 1990s, files released from Russias KGB seemed to indicate that British intelligence officers had lured Hess to leave Germany. The Russian files included reports from the notorious mole Kim Philby. The official reason for Hesss flight remains as it was in 1941: Hess believed he could, on his own, make peace between Germany and Britain. Sources: Walter Richard Rudolf Hess. Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed., vol. 7, Gale, 2004, pp. 363-365. Gale Virtual Reference Library.Rudolf Hess Is Dead In Berlin; Last of Hitler Inner Circle. New York Times 18 August 1987. A1.

Monday, March 2, 2020

New Author Profiles on the Reedsy Network

New Author Profiles on the Reedsy Network New: Author Profiles on the Reedsy Network A few months ago, we gave editors and designers the tools to create a beautiful profile on Reedsy. Today, we’re proud to be unveiling author profiles! Log in to your Reedsy account here and get started on yours now for free!Bestselling author C.J. Lyons, Scifi author Chele Cooke and  YA author Sara Raasch have already created their Reedsy profiles. We look forward to seeing yours, share it with us over on @ReedsyHQ!And if you want to help us spread the word among the author community about this awesome opportunity, here’s a simple pre-made tweet